Access Network Fiber Optic Connector Development

With the rapid development of FTTH, the access network drop cable has been introduced large number of applications, the drop cable has become to the main products at the last kilometer of FTTH. Drop cable in the practical application, the inevitable need to install fiber optic connectors at the both ends of the optical fiber, as part of the optical line, to facilitate the connection cable and optical communications devices.
A few years ago, as the cable connecting devices and optical communication devices is field assemblies connector, field assembled fiber optic connector is generally divided into two types: mechanical type and thermal fusion type, both before years have been used a lot.
Mechanical field assembled fiber optic connector due to environmental conditions of the installation site is poor, and high precision fiber optic connector installation requirements, coupled with the uneven quality of the product, resulting in the practical application of the effect is not satisfactory. The main reason is due to the insertion loss is unstable, sometimes lead nowhere light. The thermal fusion type assembled fiber optic connector, construction convenient, is not easy to splice and not properly placed.

 

optical cable assemblies
Therefore, in recent years, operators prefer a preset pre-terminated optical cable assemblies. I.e., the optical fiber connector installed in the factory production process, the fiber optic connector preinstalled in one or both ends of the cable leads. When construction of fiber optic cable has been installed a fiber optic connector, the connector simply insert the appropriate equipment can be connected. Although this method has a connector to the construction inconvenience, but the stability of the connector insertion loss and return loss and significantly better than on-site assemblies type, and the cable ends no fusion splices, splice loss will not increase, So in this way it is currently the most widely used.
Currently butterfly drop cable pre-terminated applications are mostly circular pre-terminated optical cable assemblies are also applied. pre-terminated optical cable assemblies is mainly used in situations connected terminal or other optical signal transmission network optical network, as a drop cable or indoor cable used mainly for laying indoor environment or outdoor aerial . Drop cable preformed side component length is usually several meters to several hundred meters, and has a jumper, pigtail same connection quality.

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Lightning protection of fiber optical splice closure

For the lightning protection of the fiber optic splice closure in the optical cable line, it can be targeted to the local weather and terrain and other natural conditions. Through the analysis of the fiber optic dome splice closure in these years, it is found that the following problems should be paid attention to in the construction and maintenance of the fiber optic splice closure.

 

1.For the aerial fiber optic splice closure

1.1 Fiber optic splice closure usually has reinforced core can be connected or disconnected structure, regardless of the electrical connection is disconnected mode, the metal plate connection structure to superior to a bolt connection, and bolt is horizontal open hole is better than vertical slotted structure, which is selection of fiber optic splice closure should pay attention to the problem.

in line splice closure

 

1.2 Aerial fiber optic splice closure of metal parts, should it can be to every 2 km of grounding, grounding metal parts directly to ground or through proper surge protection grounding, such steel strand has protective effect of overhead ground wire.

2.For buried fiber optic splice closure

2.1 For the telecommunication bureau grounding of the cable, the metal parts of the cable in the fiber optic splice closure should be connected ,the strengthen core, moisture proof layer and armored layer connectivity preserving state. At the ends of the bureau (station) in the armoring layer, reinforced core should be grounded, moisture-proof layer through arrester grounding.

2.2 For without the copper wire fiber cable, in accordance with the provisions of the YDJ14-91, in the fiber optic cable moisture proof layer, armored layer and strengthen core should be disconnection and are not grounded, to the ground is insulated, which can avoid the accumulation of induced lightning current in the optical cable. Practice has proved this method is simple and effective, as is usually the case, the metal component in the fiber cable of insulation value is higher, the lightning current is not easy to into the fiber cable, so as not to splice protector and cable holder damage.

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Dome fiber optic splice closure sealing type of optical cable

Dome fiber optic splice closure sealing type of optical cable are generally divided into two types, one is the heat shrink seal type, the other is a mechanical seal type. Heat shrink seal type means heat shrink tubing is through the way to achieve a seal between the cable and the cable out of the tube; Mechanical seal type, means between the cable and the cable out of the tube by a deformable sealing ring, after mechanical way that compression sealing ring, which fills inbetweenthe cable andthe cable outofthe tube toachieveaseal. Under normal circumstances, the use of heat shrinkable sealing type sealed cable, fiber optic cable and thermal casing due firmly stuck together, for the latter part of the maintenance and expansion of the cable is difficult to achieve, only by replacing the dome splice closure to resolve. As for the use of mechanical sealing type sealed cable, the use of fiber optic cable between the cable out of the tube is deformable sealing ring, maintenance and expansion can be accomplished by unscrewing the nut, remove and replace the sealing ring, installation operation more convenient no need to replace the splice closure, thereby saving the cost of maintenanceandexpansion, is anidealsealing structure. Bythe following picturetoillustrateeachstepofthe installation:

1. Heatshrinkseal type

图片1       图片11    Polished cable tube    图片11  Make a mark

Cutoutthe cable in or out tube          Polished cable tube                        Make a mark
Cable protection    图片11    Install heat shrink tube    图片11  Heat shrinkable tube

Cable protection                           Install heat shrink tube              Heat shrinkable tube

2. Mechanical seal type

Unscrew the nut      图片11     Put on the sealing ring   图片11     Installation of cable
Unscrew the nut                             Put on the sealing ring                    Installation of cable

图片11   Sealed optical cable
Sealed optical cable

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The Material of Fiber Optic Splice Closure

The fiber optic splice closure is the only protection unit of the optical cable connection and the optical fiber connection, which plays an important role in the optical cable transmission line. Optical fiber cable line most of the faults are due to the fiber optical splice closure caused by bad quality, the factors affecting the quality of the fiber optical splice tray including closure shell strength, shell and cable end sealing, environmental factors and so on. The strength of the shell of the closure is the important factors affect the fiber optical splice closure quality and service life of, and splice closure shell material of choice is affect the fiber optical splice closure strength is the most important reason.

Under normal circumstances, at present, the domestic and foreign production of fiber optical splice closure shell material, the most commonly used two kinds of materials: PC (Polycarbonate) engineering plastics and PP (Polypropylene) plastic. Due to the different characteristics of the two kinds of plastic, the use environment of the splice closure is also different.

Fibermint Technology

Fibermint Technology

PC plastic advantages, there are the following points:

  1. Shrinkage rate of the product is small, the water absorption rate is small, and have excellent size stability;
  2. In the plastic has the highest impact strength, and even can be used as a bullet proof material;
  3. Has a broad range of temperature tolerance, can be used at -100 to +140 degrees for a long time, there is still a certain toughness at -180 degrees;
  4. Good weather resistance, good flame retardant, good electrical insulation.

PC plastic shortcomings, there are the following points:

  1. The stress cracking resistance is poor, melt viscosity, easy to produce internal stress;
  2. The low fatigue resistance, high notch sensitivity, poor wear resistance;
  3. under high temperature water easily decomposed;
  4. Alkali resistance is poor.

Therefore, the use of PC materials splice closure shell, because of its good weather resistance and flame resistance, making it more suitable for aerial, pole and wall installation; due to its poor resistance to stress cracking, high temperature water easily decomposition, and therefore not suitable for pipeline wells and buried installation.

PP plastic advantages, there are the following points:

  1. has a high heat resistance, continuous use temperature up to 110-120 ℃;
  2. Good chemical resistance, which does not react with most chemicals;
  3. Product performance and stability, good hydrolysis resistance;
  4. Good electrical insulation.

PP plastic shortcomings, there are the following points:

  1. Poor cold resistance, low temperature impact strength;
  2. vulnerable to the effect of light, heat and oxygen and aging;
  3. Flame retardant, fire resistance poor;
  4. Air tightness is poor, oxygen, carbon dioxide and water vapor has certain permeability.

Therefore, the use of PP material splice closure shell, because of its excellent chemical resistance and hydrolysis resistance, it is more suitable for pipeline wells and buried underground installation; due to their poor weather, and aging ability, therefore less suitable for aerial, pole and wall installation.

MPP (Modified Polypropylene) is more popular as material of fiber optic distribution closure because it keeps PP features and benefits well but gave good mechanical performance and make up the above mentioned defects after glass fiber/minerals and other material are added. The world famous manufacturers, such as 3M, TE, adopt MPP as material of the closure shell.

However, The cold region or country, such as eastern Europe, northern Europe, northern region of China, etc. Fiber optic closures made of PC (Polycarbonate) will be better because of its good mechanical performance and good cold resistance.

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Analysis the application prospect of fiber optic distribution box with chassis splitter

Simplify the field work and provides the installation efficiency

——Analysis the application prospect of fiber optic distribution box with chassis splitter

Followed FTTH (Fiber to the Home) scale expanding, a series of new products came into use and made a great contribution in simplifying the field operation and improving the network construction efficiency. Here, we try to analyze the installation advantage of Fiber optic distribution box with chassis splitter and discuss its application prospect.

1.Fiber Optic Distribution Box with Chassis Splitter 

1.1 Concept

Fiber Optic Distribution Box with Chassis Splitter (Referred to as ODB hereinafter) is used for outdoor, in the corridor or interior connection backbone fiber optic cable and wiring cable interface equipment, has a large number of used in FTTH projects.

1.2 Types

ODB is divided into three types as below according to its inner structure,

. Splicing type. Splicing type ODB only has fiber optic splice tray (s) and only has function of fiber splicing.

. Patching type. Patching ODB not only has splice trays but also has adaptor panel which enables Patch cord connection.

. Optical Splitting type. Except for the splicing function, the point is Chassis Splitter configurated in box instead of adaptor panel and micro splitter. No patch cord is need in such boxes.

Mainly, we will discuss the application and its prospect Optical Splitting Type.

2.Chassis Splitter

2.1 Chassis splitter is composed of micro splitter, drawer type housing, SC adaptors and plastic clips. It can be installed into the ODB easily just by insert it into the slot and lock the plastic clips. One adaptor is for input and N adaptors is for output. 1×4, 1×8 and 1×16 is standard models and be used widely.

Splicing typeatching typeOptical Splitting type

2.2 Commonly used models and its overall dimensions

Model Adaptor type Slot needed Dimensions (mm)
Chassis splitter 1:4 SC 1 130×100×25
Chassis splitter 1:8 SC 1 130×100×25
Chassis splitter 1:16 SC 2 130×100×50

2.3 Structure and Dimensions(Chassis splitter 1:8 for instance).

Structure and Dimensions

Structure and Dimensions

The application and prospect of ODB

3.1 The advantages of ODB

3.1.1 the use of optical splitter greatly reduce the number of the optical fiber splicing, compress the workload of optical fiber splicing.
3.1.2 Chassis splitter makes fiber optic adaptor and fiber optic splitter integrated. Free from patch cord, ODB not only save the workload of patching, but also simplifies the fiber routing, makes the box internal routing, clear and beautiful.
3.1.3 Adopted draw-out type design, chassis splitter finish the installation bu just insert it into ODB which saves the adapter installation time and greatly simplifies the installation program.

3.2 Applications and Prospect

By using chassis splitter and flap plate design, ODB integrated optical splitting and patching in the drawer type chassis to realize function partition , and also divided splitting/patching and splicing into two areas. Such changes save the ODB space, makes the field operation simple and reduce the cost of installation. Meanwhile, it also made the routing of optical fiber clear and easy to be identified. The pictures below for reference.

Compared with the common fiber optic distribution box below

Compared with the common fiber optic distribution box below.

Compared with the common fiber optic distribution box below

In consideration of the above mentioned benefits of ODB, variety of ODB boxes become popular in China FTTH projects. The three big operators of China (China Mobile, China Telecom and China Union) have started mass purchasing. Besides, chassis splitter had extended to Fiber Optic Cross Connection Cabinets. Some operators in Europe have approved ODB boxes and started to increase the purchasing for the distribution boxes / cabinets which with chassis splitter inside after testing and trial.

In conclusion, we have reasons to believe that the fiber optic distribution boxes or cabinets which have chassis splitter inside will be more and more popular in the global optical communication market.

Attachment: Case of ODB typical Application

Case of ODB typical Application

ODB is used in apartment.

Case of ODB typical Application

 

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Advantage Of Fiber Optic Distribution Cabinet

1, good electric properties

Fiber reinforced polyester material in the manufacture of electrical products have the following performance: insulation resistance

(soaking 24 h) : 1.0 x 10 M Ω arc resistance: the 180 s

Resistant to tracking index: 600 v or higher

Protection and insulation resistance up to the standards of DIN VDE/creepage indicators.This material not only has excellent electrical

insulation, and under the high frequency can maintain good dielectric properties, electromagnetic effect, no reflection of

electromagnetic wave.These performance is far from metal materials can be compared.

2, resistant to chemical corrosion

Fiber reinforced polyester material has very good acid, dilute alkali, salt, organic solvents, the characteristics of sea water corrosion, and

no acid, no sea water corrosion resistant metal materials.

3, light weight, high strength,

Than strength and modulus is one of the indicators to measure material carrying capacity, and steel fiber reinforced polyester material

than modulus, but the specific strength can be up to four times that of steel.

4, good fatigue resistance performance

Fiber reinforced polyester materials tensile strength is slightly better steel, steel and most of the fatigue limit of metal material is 40% –

40% of the tensile strength, and fiber reinforced composite materials fatigue limit is generally higher than this value, the highest can

reach 70% 80%.

5, notch sensitivity

When components overloaded with a small amount of fiber breakage, load distribution quickly without damage of the fiber on the

mechanical equilibrium again.This is a metal component can not be compared.

Fiber Optic Terminal Boxes

6, low thermal conductivity, small expansion coefficient

When there are difference in temperature of low thermal conductivity, is a good material for insulation application, thermal expansion

coefficient is much smaller than the metal.

7, excellent resistance to uv anti-aging performance

In the nonmetallic material, fiber reinforced polyester material has excellent anti-aging performance.After anti-aging performance test

show that site is different, in different climatic zone, its maximum surface aging thickness is less than 50 microns for 20 years.In most

case, the minimum thickness.

8,Long service life

 

Related Reading: Optical Fiber Distribution Cabinet  Fiber Optic Terminal Boxes

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Fiber Cable is Replacing Copper Cable

There are several reasons for copper cable is being replaced in many applications the engine room. The most important reason is for high-definition video conferencing and high-definition television system significantly increased bandwidth requirements. This requires higher speeds to meet the information needs and fiber than copper to provide higher bandwidth.

Another important reason for this trend is that the connectors on the fiber cables(LC especially) are smaller in size than those on Fiber Optic Terminal Boxes and require less back plane real estate on the servers, switches, and routers necessary for the data system. This is the reason that manufacturers are switching to LC connectors on some of their servers and switches.

Optical Fiber Distribution Cabinet

Fiber cables are preferable in many cases where power lines run in close proximity to the data cables in order to avoid electromagnetic crosstalk to which SMC Fiber Optic Distribution Cabinet are immune. Where there are air conditioning and/or fan motors, which may be necessary for the computer system and are close to the data cabling, the use of fiber cables will avoid cross talk interference with the data signals.

As we all know distance considerations are also very important computer data room system settings. Optical Fiber Distribution Cabinet, we can extend compared to copper cables, we can run from the high-speed data. If you have to continue operating the existing copper cabling systems, fiber optic systems which interface has 12 fiber MTP connector port terminal, there are multiple front RJ45 port Media Converter for which interface copper. And the input signal is small media converter is available with one or two interface ports on the copper duplex converted into one or two fiber optic duplex output port 10/100/1000 Gigabit Ethernet systems. Through the utilization of these facilities, the existing legacy system interfaces can be extended to multiple remote systems than was previously possible. If you want to know more, please visit: fibermint.

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Important Of Fiber Optic Distribution Box

Fiber is very helpful Internet access connection DSL, cable, satellite and dial. At higher speed and reliability, so that the optical fiber offers considerable. However, the installation may require a lot of time. Here, you can read about how to install some simple tips.

The first thing your have to do is to test the availability in your area. You can all for the telephone companies such as AT&T and Verizon for fiber optic service. If the service is available, there will be a Fiber Optic Distribution Box which is mounted on the telephone pole around your neighborhood. In addition, there will be another box housing cable from that distribution box.

Fiber Optic Distribution Box

The second thing you have to do is to cord the Mountable Fiber Optic Distribution Boxes from housing to your home. Make sure that you gain a signal.

After ensuring the signal, you have to install the Optical Network Terminal inside or outside your house. It is also possible for you to install it in the basement or garage.

Then, check the compatibility of your residential phone lines. Commonly, old phone is not compatible to the system. If it is not, replace all the phone lines in your home with connections from related network terminal.

The next thing you have to do is to install a power adapter, an RJ-45 wall jack, and backup battery close to your computer. Then, connect a wall jack to the router or computer by using 100BaseT Ethernet cable.

The last thing you have to do is connecting the Fiber Optic Terminal Boxes to a network box. Then, test the connectivity using your phone line. The provider sets up a test site which allows you to dial out and access the internet. At this point, you should switch the phone lines over in order to be able to access the internet. If you want to know more information, please visit: fibermint.

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Dome Mechanical Seal Closure

Electrical portion of the FTTH network receives optical signal and converts it to traditional electrical signal which is then distributed to desktop computers via a LAN copper wire network. This converting device is called an optical network termination(ON). The building’s phone systems, LAN and cable TV system are then connected to the ONT.

FTTB: Fiber To The Building. This is in reference to Dome Mechanical Seal Closure, carrying network data, connected all the way from an Internet service provider to a customer’s physical building.

Dome Mechanical Seal Closure

FTTH: Fiber To The Home. FTTH indicates fiber network connections running from the central office to a residence, or very small multi-unit dwelling.

FTTN: Fiber to the node. FTTH customer box is also called fiber to the neighborhood or fiber to the cabinet (FTTCab). It is a telecommunication architecture based on fiber-optic cables run to a cabinet serving a neighborhood.

FTTP stands for Fiber To The Premises which is one type of fiber optic communication delivery in which a optical fiber connection is directly run to the customers’ premises. The P(premises)can be business, commercial, institutional and other applications where fiber network connections are distributed to a campus, set of structures, or high density building with a centrally located network operations center. Some other Fibe access terminal(FAT)such as FTTN(fiber to the node), FTTC(fiber to the curb) still depend on copper wires for “last mile” (final connection) to the customers’ premises which contrasts with FTTP. FTTP can be further categorized into FTTH(fiber to the home), FTTH(fiber to the building), etc. If you want to know more information, please visit: fibermint.

Fiber Optic Cable Routing

Cross-connect cable routing between the use of stents, stent, wire management devices and other two terminals.

Cross connect wiring requires extra care in handling to maintain performance characteristics. Best practices that are using in telephone-grade cross-Fiber Optic In-line Splice Closures are not at all appropriate for the higher performance categories of LAN wiring. A good example: sharply bent jumpers are a common practice when they are wrapped around wire management brackets. But in fiber cable management, these sharp bends may be less than the minimum bend radius recommended in TIA/EIA-568-B.

Latches In-line splice closure

Various Latches In-line splice closure help achieve redundancy in SONET networks. Trunks are the main fiber cables that can carry hundreds of fiber strands owned by carries.

Laterals are the fiber cables from the customer premises to the nearest splice point on the cable trunk. Within cities, laterals can be as short as a few meters or could distribution enclosure in suburban and rural areas.

In the existing poles for overhead installation is the most cost-effective method of installation, and provide appropriate reliability. Rules and authorized operators and fiber installation procedures to obtain existing tools and wire rod established by the regulatory body. Many regulators require operators to install additional piping easy installation by other licensed operators or fiber. For more information, please visit: fibermint.